When the play of a single tile forms words in each direction, one of the words is arbitrarily chosen to serve as the main word for purposes of notation. When a blank tile is employed in the main word, the letter it has been chosen to represent is indicated with a lower case letter, or, in handwritten notation, with a square around the letter.
When annotating a play, previously existing letters on the board are usually enclosed in parentheses; alternatively, the number of tiles placed on the board can be noted. The image at right gives examples of valid plays and how they would typically be annotated using the notation system. Additionally, a number of symbols have been employed to indicate the validity of words in different lexica:.
Before the game, a resource, either a word list or a dictionary, is selected for the purpose of adjudicating any challenges during the game. The tiles are either put in an opaque bag or placed face down on a flat surface. Opaque cloth bags and customized tiles are staples of clubs and tournaments, where games are rarely played without both. Next, players decide the order in which they play.
The normal approach is for players to each draw one tile: The player who picks the letter closest to the beginning of the alphabet goes first, with blank tiles taking precedence over the letter A. In most North American tournaments, the rules of the US-based North American Scrabble Players Association NASPA stipulate instead that players who have gone first in the fewest previous games in the tournament go first, and when that rule yields a tie, those who have gone second the most go first.
If there is still a tie, tiles are drawn as in the standard rules. At the beginning of the game, each player draws seven tiles from the bag and places them on their rack, concealed from the other player s. The first played word must be at least two letters long, and cover H8 the center square. Thereafter, any move is made by using one or more tiles to place a word on the board. This word may use one or more tiles already on the board and must join with the cluster of tiles already on the board.
A proper play uses one or more of the player's tiles to form a continuous string of letters that make a word the play's "main word" on the board, reading either left-to-right or top-to-bottom. The main word must either use the letters of one or more previously played words or else have at least one of its tiles horizontally or vertically adjacent to an already played word. If any words other than the main word are formed by the play, they are scored as well and are subject to the same criteria of acceptability.
See Scoring for more details. A blank tile may represent any letter, and scores zero points, regardless of its placement or what letter it represents. Its placement on a double-word or triple-word square causes the corresponding premium to be applied to the word s in which it is used. Once a blank tile is placed, it remains that particular letter for the remainder of the game. After making a play, the player announces the score for that play, and then, if the game is being played with a clock , starts the opponent's clock.
The player can change their play as long as the player's clock is running, but commits to the play when they start the opponent's clock. The player then draws tiles from the bag to replenish their rack to seven tiles. If there are not enough tiles in the bag to do so, the player takes all the remaining tiles. If a player has made a play and has not yet drawn a tile, the opponent may choose to challenge any or all words formed by the play.
The player challenged must then look up the words in question using a specified word source such as OTCWL , the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary , or CSW and if any one of them is found to be unacceptable, the play is removed from the board, the player returns the newly played tiles to their rack, and the turn is forfeited.
In tournament play, a challenge may be to the entire play or any one or more words formed in the play, and judges human or computer are used, so players are not entitled to know which word s are invalid. Penalties for unsuccessfully challenging an acceptable play vary in club and tournament play and are described in greater detail below. When the game ends, each player's score is reduced by the sum of their unplayed letters.
In addition, if a player has used all of their letters known as "going out" or "playing out" , the sum of the other player's unplayed letters is added to that player's score; in tournament play, a player who goes out adds twice that sum, and their opponent is not penalized. Plays can be made in a number of ways in what follows, it is assumed that the word JACK has been played on a previous turn; letters in parentheses represent tiles already on the board :.
Any combination of these is allowed in a play, as long as all the letters placed on the board in one play lie in one row or column and are connected by a main word, and any run of tiles on two or more consecutive squares along a row or column constitutes a valid word.
When the letters to be drawn have run out, the final play can often determine the winner. This is particularly the case in close games with more than two players. Scoreless turns can occur when a player passes, exchanges tiles, or loses a challenge. The latter rule varies slightly in international tournaments. A scoreless turn can also theoretically occur if a play consists of only blank tiles, but this is extremely unlikely in actual play.
Note that the Q is not doubled for this play. But since this is a seven-letter play, 50 points are added, resulting in a total score of Player 1 now has a —51 lead. The player with the highest final score wins the game. In case of a tie, the player with the highest score before adjusting for unplayed tiles wins the game.
Acceptable words are the primary entries in some chosen dictionary , and all of their inflected forms. Words that are hyphenated, capitalized such as proper nouns , or apostrophized are not allowed, unless they also appear as acceptable entries; JACK is a proper noun, but the word JACK is acceptable because it has other usages as a common noun automotive, vexillological , etc.
Variant spellings, slang or offensive terms, archaic or obsolete terms, and specialized jargon words are allowed if they meet all other criteria for acceptability, but archaic spellings e. Vulgar and offensive words are generally excluded from the OSPD4 but allowed in club and tournament play. Proper nouns and other exceptions to the usual rules are allowed in some limited contexts in the spin-off game Scrabble Trickster. Names of recognized computer programs are permitted as an acceptable proper noun For example, WinZIP.
The memorization of two-letter words is considered an essential skill in this game. The first is used in America, Canada, Israel and Thailand, and the second in English Scrabble in the rest of the world. North American competitions use the Long Words List for longer words. If the word has only an offensive meaning, it is only included in the OWL2.
The lexicon includes all allowed words of length 2 to 15 letters. This book is used to adjudicate at the World Scrabble Championship and all other major international competitions outside North America. The penalty for a successfully challenged play is nearly universal: the offending player removes the tiles played and forfeits his or her turn. In some online games, an option known as "void" may be used, wherein unacceptable words are automatically rejected by the program. The player is then required to make another play, with no penalty applied.
The penalty for an unsuccessful challenge where all words formed by the play are deemed valid varies considerably, including:. Under NASPA tournament rules, a player may request to "hold" the opponent's play in order to consider whether to challenge it, provided that the opponent has not yet drawn replacement tiles. If player A holds, player A's clock still runs, and player B may not draw provisional replacement tiles until 15 seconds after the hold was announced which tiles must then be kept separate.
There is no limit on how long player A may hold the play. If player A successfully challenges after player B drew provisional replacement tiles, player B must show the drawn tiles before returning them to the bag. Tens of thousands play club and tournament Scrabble worldwide. All tournament and most club games are played with a game clock and a set time control. Although casual games are often played with unlimited time, this is problematic in competitive play among players for whom the number of evident legal plays is immense.
Almost all tournament games involve only two players; typically, each has 25 minutes in which to make all of their plays. For each minute by which a player oversteps the time control, a penalty of 10 points is assessed. The number of minutes is rounded up, so, for example, if a player oversteps time control by two minutes and five seconds, the penalty is 30 points.
There are also games that count the time by fractions of a minute. Players are allowed "tracking sheets", pre-printed with the letters in the initial pool, from which tiles can be crossed off as they are played. Tracking tiles is an important aid to strategy, especially during the endgame, when no tiles remain to be drawn and each player can determine exactly what is on the opponent's rack. Clubs in North America typically meet one day a week for three or four hours and some charge a small admission fee to cover their expenses and prizes.
Clubs also typically hold at least one open tournament per year. Tournaments are usually held on weekends, and between six and nine games are played each day. There are also clubs in the UK and many other countries. During off hours at tournaments, many players socialize by playing consultation team Scrabble , Clabbers , Anagrams , Boggle , Words with Friends, Scramble with Friends and other games.
The following records were achieved during international competitive club or tournament play , according to authoritative sources, including the book Everything Scrabble by Joe Edley and John D. Williams, Jr. Two other records are believed [ citation needed ] to have been achieved under a British format known as the "high score rule", in which a player's tournament result is determined only by the player's own scores, and not by the differentials between that player's scores and the opponents'.
Play in this system "encourages elaborate setups often independently mined by the two players",  and is significantly different from the standard game in which defensive considerations play a major role. While the "high score" rule has led to impressively high records, it is currently out of favor.
Hypothetical scores in possible and legal but highly unlikely plays and games are far higher, primarily through the use of words that cover three triple-word-score squares. Anselm's College , Birkenhead, Merseyside, setting a new duration record. A longer record was never recorded by Guinness Book of Records , as the publishers decided that duration records of this nature were becoming too dangerous and stopped accepting them. An introduction to tournament Scrabble and its players can be found in Stefan Fatsis 's book Word Freak.
In the process of writing, Fatsis himself became a high-rated tournament player. The Scrabble Player's Handbook , edited by Stewart Holden and written by an international group of tournament players, gives the information a serious player needs to advance to successful tournament play.
Maven is a computer opponent for the game created by Brian Sheppard. The official Scrabble computer game in North America uses a version of Maven as its artificial intelligence and is published by Atari. Outside North America, the official Scrabble computer game is published by Ubisoft. Quackle is an open-source alternative to Maven of comparable strength, created by a five-person team led by Jason Katz-Brown.
The Nintendo DS version of Scrabble Edition made news when parents became angry over the game's AI using potentially offensive language during gameplay. A number of websites offer the possibility to play Scrabble online against other users, such as ScrabbleScores. Facebook initially offered a variation of Scrabble called Scrabulous as a third-party application add-on. On July 24, , Hasbro filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against its creators.
By December 20, Hasbro had withdrawn its lawsuit. Mattel launched its official version of online Scrabble , Scrabble by Mattel , on Facebook in late March When Gamehouse ceased support for its application, Mattel replaced it with the Electronic Arts version in May This decision was met with criticism from its user base.
Electronic Arts has also released mobile apps for Android and iOS, allowing players to continue the same game on more than one platform. As well as facilities to play occasional games online, there are many options to play in leagues. Features such as boosts, rewards and all other game modes are disabled", the company announced. A new licensed product, Super Scrabble , was launched in North America by Winning Moves Games in under license from Hasbro, with the deluxe version with turntable and lock-in grid released in February A Mattel-licensed product for the rest of the world was released by Tinderbox Games in The game was called Alfapet when it was introduced in Sweden in , but since the mids, the game has also been known as Scrabble in Sweden.
Alfapet is now another crossword game, created by the owners of the name Alfapet. A Russian version is called Erudit. For languages with digraphs counted as single letters, such as Welsh and Hungarian , the game features separate tiles for those digraphs.
The previous year the same organisation published the Junior version of the game and two years later it republished Junior Scrabble using a two-sided and two skill level board. Billed as the "Official Home Version" of the game show or officially as the "TV Scrabble Home Game" , game play bears more resemblance to the game show than it does to a traditional Scrabble game, although it does utilize a traditional Scrabble gameboard in play.
There are numerous variations of the game. While they are similar to the original Scrabble game, they include minor variations. For example, Literati draws random tiles instead of providing a finite number of tiles for the game, assigns different point levels to each letter and has a slightly different board layout, whereas Lexulous assigns eight letters to each player instead of seven.
Words with Friends uses a different board layout and different letter values, as does Words of Gold. Duplicate Scrabble is a popular variant in French speaking countries. Every player has the same letters on the same board and the players must submit a paper slip at the end of the allotted time usually 3 minutes with the highest scoring word they have found. There is no limit to the number of players that can be involved in one game, and at Vichy in there were players, a record for French Scrabble tournaments.
In one variation of Scrabble , blanks score points corresponding to the letters the blanks are used to represent. For example, if one played blank to represent a Z, it would get ten; a blank to represent a V or an H would get four; a blank to represent a D would get 2 and blank to represent a T, N, L, S or R or any of the vowels would get one.
Popular among tournament Scrabble players is Clabbers. In Clabbers, any move that consists of anagrams of allowable words is allowed. A junior version, called Junior Scrabble , has been marketed. This has slightly different distributions of frequencies of letter tiles to the standard Scrabble game. The game has been released in numerous gameboard formats appealing to various user groups. The original boards included wood tiles and many "deluxe" sets still do.
Tile Lock editions of Scrabble  and Super Scrabble   are made by Winning Moves and feature smaller, plastic tiles that are held in place on the board with little plastic posts. The standard version features exactly the same tiles as regular Scrabble. Editions are available for travelers who may wish to play in a conveyance such as a train or plane, or to pause a game in progress and resume later.
Many versions thus include methods to keep letters from moving, such as pegboards, recessed tile holders and magnetic tiles. Players' trays are also designed with stay-fast holders. Such boards are also typically designed to be reoriented by each player to put the board upright during the game, as well as folded and stowed with the game in progress.
At the opposite end, some "deluxe" or "prestige"  editions offer superior materials and features. These include editions on a rotating turntable, so players can always face the board, with the letters upright and a raised grid that holds the tiles in place. An edition has been released in association with the Royal National Institute of Blind People RNIB  with a larger board and letters for players with impaired vision.
The tiles are in bold 48 point, and have braille labels. A separate braille edition is also available. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Scrabble disambiguation. Board game with words. Further information: Scrabble letter distributions. The name of the game spelled out in game tiles from the English-language version. Each tile is marked with their point value, with a blank tile—the game's equivalent of a wild card —played as the word's first letter.
The blank tile is worth zero points. See also: Category:Scrabble lexica. Main article: Challenge Scrabble. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also , 32, , and 2,,, This is also the only number between 9,,, and a googol to get its own Wikipedia article.
This number, equal to about See also , another number with this property. This was also the largest number listed in an early version of Robert Munafo's number list - the largest is now Steinhaus's mega. Robert Munafo points out that this happens to be the largest integer that he has memorized not counting trivial things like vigintillion. To get an idea of this number's size, this many gallons of water would cover up the state of Ohio 3 miles deep. It would take about Think about that for a second - this means that if water started running down the Niagara Falls when the dinosaurs went extinct the Niagara Falls didn't actually exist back then!
See also 3,,, and the other R ubik's Cube numbers:. This is the number of ways to arrange a Rubik's cube if you're allowed to disassemble and reassemble it. In the long scale it's known as a trilliard. It is a number that is rarely heard of at all, even though it's still the legitimate and real continuation of after the "cut-off -illion" quintillion. However a sextillion, like basically all larger -illions, is quite freely used by some people when talking about large numbers.
Here are some examples of numbers in the sextillions: Earth is about a sextillion cubic meters in volume. It would take 30, years for us to speak a sextillion words, which is longer than all of recorded history! Also, the earth weighs about 6 sextillion tons. There are 6 sextillion cups of water in all the oceans in the world. The distance between one end of the universe and the other may be 88 sextillion miles. The prefixes for sextillion are zetta- based on Greek hepta-, seven and zepto- based on Latin septem.
This value was given by Lawrence Hollom on the beginning of his old site, when he discusses large numbers in the real world. In one part, he brings up the weight of Earth in kilograms, and then in terms of elephants - he sarcastically says that putting Earth's weight in terms of elephants makes it much easier to picture. Dutrimevalka 2,,,,,,, This is another copy notation googolism by SpongeTechX. Number of possible Sudoku grids. This is the number of possible solved grids with each number filled in the well-known puzzle Sudoku, where you start off with a 9x9 grid with some of the numbers filled and the goal is to fill the grid such that each number 1 through 9 occurs once in each row, column, and 3x3 grid.
This number is equal to about 6. It's equal to about For other taxicab numbers and more about them , see and 87,, This value is difficult to estimate, since many stars cannot be observed at all from Earth due to technical restrictions, so much guess-work needs to be done to get such a value. Previous estimates for this figure have been smaller. A mole of any substance weighs the same number of grams as the molecule or atom's atomic mass, and a mole of a substance will always have precisely Avogadro's number of molecules or atoms of that substance.
With Avogadro's number we can easily determine the number of molecules in n grams of a substance. For example, since carbon's atomic mass is Avogadro's number is notable because it is a large number that is used in standard science education, and because it's much larger than our everyday millions, billions, and trillions. However there are numbers in science and in mathematics that make Avogadro's number look quite humble, for example the number of atoms or Planck volumes in the observable universe, or the largest known prime number.
This is a pretty insane number alright, and by now it's getting hard to keep track of all these zeros. Here are some examples of a septillion: A septillion cookies would be about the size of the planet Mercury. Earth weighs five septillion tons. A liter of water has about 33 septillion molecules. A septillion is notable because it's the largest -illion to get an SI prefix - yotta- and yocto- are the largest and smallest official SI prefixes, respectively.
Beyond this point there are no officially recognized SI prefixes, but there are many extensions to them people have made see octillion. Pretty scary right? Well, a goby , 1 followed by 35 zeros, will make THAT look like a minnow. It's notable as the first number of the form x! This makes it a bit easier to bound numbers like the googolbang. It is a billion billion billions, which is almost impossible to even comprehend!
Some examples of octillions: The sun has a volume of 1. Earth weighs 6 octillion grams. The human body has about 7 octillion atoms. An octillion is the first -illion that does not get an official SI prefix. It has many different unofficial SI prefixes, such as novetta- Robert Munafo , xenna- Sbiis Saibian , xova- Andre Joyce , xona- Jim Blowers , harpi- Morgan Burke , hella- jocular but recognized in Google's unit conversion, like meter to hellameter , xenta- hoax by Jeff Aaronson , bronto- origin unknown but widespread on the Internet , xotta- Paul Schuch , xera- another hoax , and probably even more.
Many seem to be based on x and words for nine, extrapolating from zetta- and yotta-. In my own system, the prefix for one octillion is bronta-, based on the popular hoax prefix bronto-. For more about my own system of extended SI prefixes, see here. This is therefore the number of 9x9 Latin squares, a number equal to about 5. This is roughly a million times more than the number of possible Sudoku grids. For more on Latin squares see His system is intended to turn "zero" into 0, "one" into 1, "two" into 2, etc, but it doesn't even remotely work.
When plugging in "googol" to the system, it comes out as That's much less than the googol and barely in the same class of numbers. See also The Galactic Range. The number has several different names. Googoxex 1. It's equal to aboet nonillion. The fast-growing hierarchy is a googological notation very commonly used for approximating large numbers. Those are just a few examples that only scratch the surface of what the fast-growing hierarchy has to offer - Googology Wiki's article is helpful for understanding how the fast-growing hierarchy works.
This number is a staggering digit number equal to about 1. This is the value of the Planck temperature in degrees Kelvin degrees Celsius above absolute zero. The Planck temperature was the temperature of the universe a Planck time after the Big Bang, the same time the forces started to become distinct. It was discovered in by Ralph Ernest Powers. It was the second largest known prime for forty years, until it was knocked down to third in It was the smallest -illion that was extrapolated from Chuquet's names read this page for details.
It's one of my personal favorite illions, along with the vigintillion , and it was the largest my mom taught me as a kid. Walt Whitman has used numbers up to a decillion in his poetry, showing that numbers this big, even as names, have appeared in literature. A decillion is also the last -illion recognized in many spell checks, showing that much like a quintillion it serves as a sort of cut-off point for -illions. Examples of decillions: The sun weighs 2 decillion grams.
The area of the Milky Way Galaxy is decillion cubic meters. Also, a decillion gallons of water in a sphere would be 19 million km wide, 15 times larger in diameter than the sun itself! It's ten billion times larger than a minnow.
That goby-sphere would be just a little smaller than the giant star Rigel, which is 80 times bigger in diameter than the sun. A minnow seems tiny now, doesn't it? And you ain't seen nothing yet! The volume of the supergiant star Betelgeuse is 1. The electromagnetic force is an undecillion times more powerful than the gravitational force between two protons.
This number is notable as part of a lawsuit, where someone sued the company Au Bon Pain for this many dollars. Even if you had an Earth or even a sun made of gold that would cost much less than this many dollars. Randall Munroe wrote a blog post on his "What If?
It was proven to be prime in by Edouard Lucas, before the previous three Mersenne primes were discovered, so it was the largest known prime for 75 years until it was broken in by a non-Mersenne prime. It's the largest known prime double Mersenne number. It's almost exactly twice as large as the previous number.
Jonathan Bowers strangely calls this number "doedecillion". This is also the first -illion listed on Wiktionary as rare - it's truly rare to actually use these number names. The Great Lakes have 53 duodecillion water molecules.
All the stars in the Milky Way weigh tredecillion grams combined. It's notable for not being a Mersenne prime, and the last record-breaking prime number to be discovered without a computer. It was proven to be prime with a variant of Fermat's Little Theorem see , With the unwieldy names here, you can see why scientists prefer scientific notation for numbers this big. There are about 42 quattuordecillion water molecules in all of Earth's oceans.
A quattuordecillion is the largest number of dimensions namable in Jonathan Bowers' n-dimensional figure naming system which continues polygon for 2 dimensions, polyhedron for 3 dimensions, polychoron for 4 dimensions. It's a ridiculously big number but still small by googology standards. To get an idea of this number's size, a sphere of this many gallons of water centered at the sun would exceed the orbit of Pluto at its furthest point from the sun Rubik's Cube numbers:.
It is equal to a trillion trillion trillion trillions! It's sometimes referred to as a quinquadecillion, as this is its name using Conway and Guy's illions. It's been estimated that the Earth is made of about 89 quindecillion molecules see 2 entries later. Robert Munafo's upper-bound of all possible chess positions. This is Robert Munafo's upper bound on the number of possible chess positions. He says on his number list that it allows 2 to 32 pieces on the board, including 1 king of each color, and up to 8 pawns unlike with other estimates, Munafo allows pawn promotion.
This is equal to about 52 quindecillion and it's comparable to a gogol. The number of possible chess games is much larger - you can look at my upper-bound here. This number is 89 quindecillion, and it's an estimate of how many molecules make up the Earth itself.
It's a good benchmark for large numbers when comparing them against the physical world - this number, on the scale of atoms, can be seen as the boundary between "dwarfed by Earth" and "dwarfing Earth". It's the logarithmic halfway point to between one and a googol and it can be named quindecillion with the short scale of illions.
Sbiis Saibian gives this number a name, "gogol". To get a sense of how big the gogol is, imagine a gogol gallons of water in a sphere. If that sphere is centered around the sun, the sphere of a gogol gallons of water would exceed Pluto's orbit, times!! The next googolism of Sbiis Saibian's is a jumbo shrimp.
Here's another interesting thing about 10 50 : For a long time it was unknown if you could cut a circle into a finite number of pieces and assemble them to form a square of the same size. Nonetheless, what's interesting is that this gives an example of a problem whose premise a child could understand gives an example of a fairly large number. In Conway and Guy's illions it's known as a sedecillion. The Milky Way has a volume of a sexdecillion cubic kilometers. The Pleiades star cluster has a volume of about septendecillion cubic centimeters.
The Pleiades star cluster may have about octodecillion hydrogen atoms. The sun is made of about an octodecillion atoms. The Milky Way is about novemdecillion cubic feet, and the universe is 8. In my extended SI prefix system , a novemdecillion, being the 20 th power of , has the next prefix after geopa- to get a unique name - the SI prefix in my system for a novemdecillion is amosa-.
It is a personal favorite of mine, along with the decillion. A vigintillion is notable because it is the second largest officially recognized -illion - the largest is a centillion , and there are no canonical -illions between a vigintillion and a centillion. Numbers beyond this have unofficial but often recognized names, that are not officially part of the English language though they might as well be.
That kind of thing is pretty common in English - less familiar -illions can be expressed in terms of more familiar -illions, e. A vigintillion is also used in the calculation of the ever-growing number called the lynz.
The Virgo supercluster where we live has a volume of 3. Personal: I read about this number in a math book for kids in second grade at school - one of the things, together with a description of the googol and googolplex, was as a table of the -illions. The googol and googolplex stayed in my head due to their fascinating size, but only a few -illion numbers did. Two -illions that did remain in my head were vigintillion and trigintillion. I actually thought they were vingtillion and tringtillion until A vigintillion is still one of my favorite illion numbers.
A jumbo shrimp gallons of water would be about as big as the Milky Way! It representes the problem discussed in the entries for 54 and a vigintillion. It's named vigintillion novemdecillion octodecillion Using only canonical -illions we would have to call it a "thousand vigintillion", though at this point most people are fine with just calling it "ten to the power of sixty-six".
However, people interested in extended -illions refer to this number as an unvigintillion, an obvious continuation from "vigintillion". In the long scale this is known as an undecillion. Our galaxy has an unvigintillion atoms. In the long scale it's known as an undecilliard. The volume of the observable universe is roughly a duovigintillion cubic miles. The Virgo Supercluster may have duovigintillion hydrogen atoms in all of its stars.
The Sloan Great Wall superstructure in the universe hasa volume of about 2 trevigintillion cubic meters. It's one of the largest structures in the observable universe, and we are not in it. However, the famous comic strip Calvin and Hobbes hints at a definition for a gazillion:.
Calvin: Psst! Susie: Three hundred billion gazillion. Calvin: Oh, thanks for the big help! Susie: That's a three, followed by 85 zeroes. Calvin: Ah! I knew that. A gazillion, being an indefinite -illion used figuratively to represent a large amount, would probably be much larger than this if it were to be a real number. It's equal to about trevigintillion, and is a staggeringly large number - it's far far more than the number of atoms in Earth, or even in the entire solar system - hell, it's more than the number of atoms in our entire galaxy!
To get an idea of this number's size, a sphere of this many gallons would have a diameter of million light years, which is a thousand times larger than the diameter of our galaxy, and somewhat larger than the distance from us to the Eridanus galaxy cluster. This means that we'll only need a thousand ogol gallons of water to fill the observable universe! The observable universe has a volume of a sexvigintillion cubic feet.
The observable universe has a volume of a septenvigintillion cubic inches. This many gallons of water would finally dwarf the observable universe, being since a sphere of that many gallons would be about 5 times as large in diameter!
So NOW we're getting somewhere with large numbers. However we still are 15 orders of magnitude away from a googol! Though I'm pretty confident it's the largest number in Calvin and Hobbes, this number isn't the largest number to appear in comics. It wasn't even the largest during the strip's publication - the record had already been broken twenty-something years ago in a Peanuts comic strip with the googol.
Sbiis Saibian gave 10 to the 90th power the name "googolspeck". You will find out why it's called a googolspeck in a little bit. For now the only thing there is to say about a googolspeck is that it's ten billion times less than a googol! It's about twice as large as a googolspeck. It's just under a googol in exponential terms, and written out it's almost as long, but it's still 4.
It is logarithmically close to a googol though it's actually ten million times smaller. It is continued with untrigintillion, duotrigintillion, etc. To get an idea of how big a trigintillion is, consider this: if you divided the observable universe into a trigintillion equally sized pieces, each would be half as small as the width of a human hair!
A trigintillion is the largest number that I consider to have any sort of childhood significance. It's , times smaller than a googol. This number is 10, times smaller than a googol. It's is the largest -illion under a googol, and Sbiis Saibian named it a googolchunk. To get an idea of what that means, look at this picture credit goes to Sbiis Saibian for image and description :. The Googol Range. It was coined in by 9-year-old Milton Sirotta as a name for 1 followed by zeros, and it was shared to the world in by his uncle Edward Kasner along with its infamous big brother, the googolplex.
Today it is the single best known googolism and the quintessential large number. It can also be given a more techinical name, ten duotrigintillion. The googol become very significant in our day, and a lot of googology originated from it, including the name "googology" AND the whole idea of naming large numbers.
Then each portion would be nanometers wide, which is very small, comparable to the size of some of the smallest known bacteria. Thus we can say that about a googol tiny bacteria would fill up the observable universe. For a more detailed review of how much a googol is, read my article on the googol and googolplex. See also googolplex. Andre Joyce applied this -teen suffix to the googol, creating a humorous number called googolteen.
Here is googolteen written out in full:. The smallest semiprime product of two prime numbers larger than a googol. Its name was coined in the inactive blog "A googol is a tiny dot" - see also the next few entries and gooprolplex.
For its magnitude it's unusually close to the previous prime. It's notable for being the smallest larger than a googol, and it's quite close to the googol in size. It is the number of letters without the space in the name for a googolduplex in Conway and Guy's -illion system - for more on that system see here. Andre Joyce applied this prefix to the googol forming this humorous number along with googolteen.
Sbiis Saibian gives the name "googolbunch" for this number, in analogy to the -speck, -crumb, and -chunk suffixes but with naming multiples of a number instead of fractions of the number. It's equal to exactly ten times a googol. It's equal to exactly a hundred thousand times a googol, and therefore it can be thought of as a "crowd of googols". Sbiis Saibian gives it another name, "googolswarm" - here, "swarm" means multiplying by 10 billion , in contrast with -speck which divides a number by ten billion.
This number is a swarm of googols in comparison to the googol, and makes a googolspeck look unimaginably small. This difference is only twenty orders of magnitude, and pretty soon we'll be blasting into the stars where the differences between two numbers on this list have no analogy we can use at all! As rule number 1 of googology says, it only gets worse!!!
This number is also an estimate of how many atoms would be needed to fill up the observable universe - therefore after this point we can no longer use a "sphere of this many atoms" analogy to capture the size of these numbers. To get an idea of how big this value is, gallons of water will no longer help, since this many gallons of water easily dwarfs the observable universe.
So we'll need to describe its size some other way, by dividing the universe into this many portions. But even that is a very difficult analogy. Helium atoms are the smallest out of all atoms, and if this many helium atoms filled up the observable universe, we STILL wouldn't reach this gigantic number. So we need to put this number in terms of something smaller like, say, protons.
This many protons in a sphere would be about , light years, bigger than the Milky Way galaxy. My upper-bound on the number of possible chess games is much larger , and likely a more reasonable esitmate considering that a game can easily last much longer than 80 turns. The observable universe has a volume of 47 quadragintillion cubic femtometers. Protons and neutrons are about a femtometer wide. This is also known as a "vigintilliard" in the long scale, the largest power of to get its own name in the long scale other than the much larger long-scale centillion and centilliard.
Logically, this should be the great googol, since a great gross is a gross raised to the 1. However, defining it as 10 is more aesthetically appealing and still makes sense in a way, if you consider how the exponents compare. This is equal to a novemquadragintillion in the -illion system. This is approximately the volume of the observable universe in cubic yoctometers the smallest metric unit of volume. This is a better tetrational number but still not quite great, and logarithmically not too far from a googol.
It's approximately 13 quinquagintillion and it has exactly digits. It is digits long, and it's the smallest one with more than digits. It held the record for largest known prime for a few hours? Five Mersenne primes were discovered in , all by Robinson. The number has exactly digits and it's equal to about It's really too big for us to actually comprehend. If you do want an idea of its size, this number is so big that this many cubic yoctometers would fill up ten million observable universes.
See also the quartic hypervolume of the universe in Planck units. For more on the gar- prefix see gargoogolplex. A gargoogol is also equal to a fzhundred, using the fz- prefix which takes a number to its own power. It's interesting to note that the fz- prefix achieves the same value as the gar- prefix does for a much larger number.
The number has exactly digits and falls between a septuagintillion and an octogintillion. If I were to only mention one of the googo- numbers, this would be it. Interestingly, it's equal to the product of two other googol-related numbers googolbit and gargoogol. Some time after that point, the universe may start decomposing, if the theory about proton decay is true.
Quartic hypervolume of the observable universe in Planck hypervolumes birth-present 8. By the time the universe is this many Planck volumes it may have already decayed if the theory of proton decay is correct. But we could still get real-world numbers this big using quatrtic hypervolume of the universe, not to mention the numbers we could get from probability. Currently, no integers have been proven to be transcendental. For a long time it was the last number to get an official name in the English language, before the googol and googolplex came along.
It's still the largest -illion that gets an official name. It's unusual that a centillion gets an official name but no -illions between a vigintillion and it does. Nonetheless a centillion is a pretty awesome number. Sbiis Saibian has strong personal connections to a centillion - while reading the dictionary, he was fascinated by the names of large numbers, especially the centillion.
Therefore a few of his googologisms, like ecetonplex , are based on a centillion. A way to get the idea of the size of a centillion is to consider q uartic hypervolume , which is like volume but adding time as a 4th dimension. In that case, from the start of the universe to 3. It's the largest number that can be directly stored in most programming languages at all.
Beyond this, numbers can only be physically interpreted in combinatorics and listing possibilities, as well as hypothetical sizes of the whole universe. Faxul ! This number was coined by Lawrence Hollom, creator of hyperfactorial array notation, a notation which extends the factorial into the realm of googology, taking unusually powerful approaches. It's the smallest of Hollom's googolisms, and it's the only one that can be written out in decimal, as shown above.
Its name was chosen arbitrarily, akin to the googol. This is the fifth member of the fuga- series, a function which achieves staggering hyper-exponential growth. It has exactly digits, and as such it falls between the faxul and the output of pete Output of pete It is a simple program submitted by a guy named Pete that "takes 9 and shifts it left times by 9 and once by 99 " according to David Moews, the man who held Bignum Bakeoff , producing an exponential sized number.
Pete submitted nine different entries including this one, pete-3 to Bignum Bakeoff, the most of anyone who participated. It's a ridiculously huge number far bigger even the quartic hypervolume of the entire run of the universe, and needs to be compared to entirely different things!
If you want an example of its size, the probability that random people in a room all share the same birthday is about 1 in a googolding. Here's how it works:. This may seem amazing, but actually this formula is a lot more like the infinite monkey theorem than a self-referential formula. The formula, as it turns out, can graph anything depending on what value of N you pick!
And also, think back to the instructions for the formula. In particular, take note that it requires making use of a specific digit number, not just the formula itself! Because of this, the graph shown above of the formula is not so much in the formula as it is in the definition of the digit number. This means that the formula isn't so much of a self-referential formula as it is a "magic trick" so to speak.
If you want a formula that actually is self-referential in this sense, check this out. This number falls just under a googolchime. Some calculators max out not at 9. That is quite a wide range, considering that it's more than can be directly stored in most programming languages see 1. The Chime-Gong Range. The th -illion. It's the first Mersenne prime with over a thousand digits. If there are any such numbers, the smallest one is at least this big, i.
What is known about odd perfect numbers if there are any , e. Also, this number can be named googod, the th member of the googo- series , with Joyce's googo- naming system. Here it is written out in full:. We're getting into the somewhat better tetrational numbers, although this number can still be realistically computed, as it still has only about two thousand digits. That means that it can be realistically written by hand; when you write 2 digits per second it would take about 18 minutes.
Nonetheless it's still a very big number, far beyond what we can appreciate and somewhere between a septingentillion and an octingentillion in terms of the Latin-based -illions. It's also the -illion right beofre a millillion. Even though in Conway and Guy's system it has the slightly different name "millinillion", most other -illion systems either instead opt for "millillion" or use an entirely diferent name.
For more on Chinese numerals see 10, However it's still less than some very huge combinatorical numbers like the famous Hamlet monkey number! Bowers says that this name was suggested to him but he has no idea where it came from. I don't consider "platillion" to be part of Bowers' illion system, since it's the th illion in the short scale and Bowers' system obviously extends upon the short scale, and the th name shouldn't be a milestone name.
In any case, this seems like an arbitrary name that is little more than a peculiarity. This is the 24th Mersenne prime , a number with exactly digits. This means that numbers the Mersenne twister sequence generates repeat with a period of this number. This is the sixth member of the fuga- series. One myriad undecyllion was erroneously given by Andre Joyce most likely actually Michael Halm as what a googol is named in terms of Knuth's -yllions.
However, this value is much larger than a googol - it's more than raising a googol to the 81st power! In Knuth's -yllions, a googol would actually be called one myriad tryllion quadryllion. We can continue with "quattuormillillion", "quinmillillion", and so on. There are three ways to interpret it:. This is probably the most logical and the one Joyce used in the revised page, but not as interesting as the second way.
This is the third member of the googolple- series, and an interesting one in my opinion. It begins It's the tenth power of a googolchime and the th power of a googol. It's far far larger than numbers we can actually comprehend, but we can try to imagine it as starting with a sphere of a googol objects, then drawfing the sphere by a factor of itself 99 times.
Andre Joyce continues his great googol with the great great googol, great great great googol, etc, allowing us to call this number great great googol. A googoltoll is also notable for being about as far as we can currently go with testing any single number to be prime - beyond that, special tests need to be used used, which is part of why Mersenne primes are special - they're a lot easier to test for primality than most primes.
It's the first Mersenne prime to have over 10, digits, and therefore the smallest Mersenne prime to be a gigantic prime. A lower bound for BB 6 using the busy beaver function see It's sometimes called myrillion because of the name "myriad" for 10, , but that name is nonstandard.
My upper-bound on all possible chess games. This is my upper-bound on the total number of possible chess games, using the fifty -move rule. I calculated this by first using a maximum of possible moves every turn is the current record most possible moves in any single known chess possition. Then, based on the fifty-move rule and total maximum number of possible captures or pawn moves per player 71 , I got 14, as an upper-bound of the maximum number of turns a chess game can last see that entry for a more detailed explanation of how I got that number.
This number is just crazy big, as it has exactly 33, digits. This means that it's roughly a millillion times the cube of a googoltoll. This is an utterly unbelievable huge number, but small in comparison to numbers we'll examine later.
For more numbers like this see my article on large numbers in probability. This number has 36, digits, so at this point all the digits placed here would be a bit of a drag to scroll through. In one chapter, it says that one can survive 30 seconds within the vacuum of space, and the probability of being picked up by a passing spaceship in those thirty seconds is "two to the power of two hundred seventy-six thousand two hundred nine against".
He claims that since "gaz" is Latin for "earthly edge", he assumed this to mean it's the Earth's circumference in Greek miles, which is 28, Therefore he says that a gazillion should be 1 followed by 28, groups of 3 zeros, aka 1 followed by 86, zeros. He even bothers to write it out! However, I feel like a "gazillion", if it were a number, should be too big to even write out and have at least a "zillion" zeros.
Nonetheless it's an interesting interpretation. The value is slightly larger than the Hitchhiker's Number. Actually it's just over a millillion times bigger. However on this scale that's considered pretty close. This is the seventh member of the series of numbers formed with the fuga- prefix. It all happened when Sbiis Saibian was kid and had recently gotten into large numbers and always talked about them. Saibian was floored and in his mind popped a huge gong that, when struck, would ring for a googolgong years!
The funny thing is that there never even was such a thing as a googolgong; only a googol and a googolplex actually existed and the googolgong was just made up! He was actually incorrectly explaining the much much larger googolplex to Saibian and made that number up out of his mixed-up thoughts. I like to imagine that the man thought that scientists came up with a googolgong something like this: Scientist 1: I finally figured it out! Scientist 2: Oh goody! What did you find?
Scientist 1: I found out the number of ways this experiment could have gone! Scientist 2: Just how big is the number? Scientist 2: Oh my goodness! That number is monstrous. We should make a name for this huge number! What are your ideas? Scientist 1: We should name it after something big! Google perhaps! Scientist 2: Wow, great idea!
Scientist 1: How about g-o-o-g-o-l? Scientist 2: That sounds great, but we should end it with something that emphasizes its hugeness! Scientist 1: I know! We should call it a googolgong! Scientist 2: This idea is pure gold! We need to publish our studies and allow the world to hear about this huge number we discovered!
Nonetheless, Sbiis Saibian has now appropriated a googolgong as his own googolism and uses it as the base of and inspiration for many of his bigger numbers. Five expofactorial 5! The number has exactly , digits, so it falls between a googolgong and the 32nd Mersenne prime. This means that it can still be realistically written out, and in fact it's the largest expofactorial that can be written out. It starts The number is the first Mersenne prime with over , digits, and logarithmically it is fairly close to the famous Hamlet monkey number.
You've probably heard of the infinite monkey theorem before. It states that a monkey on a typewriter pressing random keys will, after a long bsymbolut finite time, type absolutely every possible string of text at one point or another. This number is pretty easy to calculate: my version of this number uses a 47 -key typewriter alphabet, numbers, space,.
There are several variants of this number, some of which only use 35 - or 27 -key typewriters, and some that use much smaller likely erroneous numbers of characters in Hamlet. Now this number is absurdly huge! This is about , orders of magnitude larger than a centillion - the Hamlet monkey number is itself , orders of magnitude away from one, which seems only a bit bigger than the ratio between it and a centillion! Even multiplying a centillion by itself a thousand times imagine dwarfing a sphere of a centillion particles by a factor of itself times wouldn't quite take you to this number!
See my article on large numbers in probability for more on this number, and other numbers like this. The Megadigit Range. This is the eighth member of the f uga- series, a number with about 1. It falls between a millionplex and Borges' number. Borges' number. This is the number of books in the Library of Babel , sometimes known as Borges' number named by Robert Munafo. The library at first seems glorious because among those books is information on literally everything - your biography, the biography of anyone you've met, news reports on anything that has happened, a chronology of Earth, your house, etc, written in any language.
However, many more of those books would contain false information, ranging from books that botch up a fact or two to books whose information is complete bullshit that seems like someone pulled it out of their ass! Even worse, most of the books would in fact be completely meaningless nonsense to anyone, being a long string of completely random letters.
Because of the peculiarities in the Library of Babel, the Library of Babel has been valued as a mathematical thought experiment. It has 1. It's a small class 3 number, and it's larger than the number of Planck volumes in the observable universe But, as I've sa id a bunch of times already, this is quite modest to numbers we'll explore soon, not even as big as a googolplex!
See also the Hamlet monkey number and promaxima. It's the smallest Mersenne prime to be a megaprime, meaning it's the smallest with over a million digits. It's a number that has been given multiple names in extensions to the -illions. It's named "milli-millillion" in Professor Henkle's system for naming one million -illions, and it's the largest -illion in that system. It's a natural-sounding name because milli-milli literally means "thousand thousands", aka "million". In Conway and Guy's system it's called millinillinillion, which is a name that is certainly less ad hoc than any of the names in Henkle's, but just not as natural of a name as milli-millillion.
In Bowers' system, this number is named micrillion. Although the name makes it sound like a small number, this system allows for a natural continuation of the -illion names as we will see with later numbers on this list. A vigintyllion is the largest -yllion Knuth mentioned in the article where he introduced his -yllions see this page for more about them.
It's one followed by 4,, 2 22 zeros. It's notable because it's only the 20th -yllion, and yet it's larger than numbers like Henkle's milli-millillion , the largest number named in his system! See my article on them for how Knuth's system is able to work like that.
See also decyllion and centyllion. It was given by Cockburn himself as an example of a number nameable with the fz- prefix, in the article where he introduces the gar-, fz-, and fuga- prefixes. Storing this number would take up about MB of space, and the value is larger than a fzmillion but less than a googolbong. Click here for all of its digits. Largest known prime number as of 2 74,, For three years it was the record holder of largest known prime number.
It broke the previous and-a-bit-million digit record of The number is gigantic with over seventeen million digits, making it a small class 3 number. It's the current record holder of largest known prime number, the largest number that we know for sure is prime.
It was discovered September 17, on Curtis Cooper's computer software, though a bug prevented the email about the new largest known prime from being sent, so it was not discovered by human beings until the prime-finding computer was checked for maintenance on January 7, Although the prime was found by a computer in September , the discovery date is marked as four months later because that date was the first time a human discovered the number as prime.
It is known that there are infinitely many prime numbers, but testing a number to be prime becomes famously difficult as a prime gets very large - the largest known primes have been Mersenne primes because Mersenne primes are a lot easier to test for primality than other prime numbers for primality. Largest known perfect number as of It's the largest known perfect number, since all even perfect numbers connect to Mersenne primes, and it is not known if there are any odd perfect numbers see for more.
This number has 44 million digits, so it's about the square of the largest known prime. This is the ninth member of the fuga- series, a number with about 41 million digits which falls somewhere between the record holder for largest known perfect number and a googolbong.
It's a continuation of the googolgong recently coined by Sbiis Saibian. It's expressible as E,, or as E8 2 in Hyper-E notation, and it's the thousandth power of a googolgong and the millionth power of a googol. Some users of Googology Wiki pointed out that the number's name is a little weird since "bong" is also the name of a device used to smoke marijuana.
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